Glossary

comparative politics

comparative politics

Subfield of political science focused on interactions within other countries.

austerity

austerity

Government cutting expenditures to balance budget; economic belt-tightening.

authoritarian

authoritarian

Nondemocratic or dictatorial politics.

democracy

democracy

Political system of mass participation, competitive elections, and human and civil rights.

power

power

Ability of A to get B to do what A wants.

quarrels

quarrels

As used here, important, long-term political issues.

international relations (IR)

international relations (IR)

Politics among countries.

demagogue

demagogue

Manipulative politician who wins votes through impossible promises.

political economy

political economy

Mutual influence of politics and economy; what government should do in the economy.

nation

nation

Cultural element of country; people psychologically bound to one another.

state

state

Institutional or governmental element of country.

sovereignty

sovereignty

Last word in law in a given territory; being boss on your own turf.

constructed

constructed

Deliberately created but widely accepted as natural.

ethnicity

ethnicity

Cultural characteristics differentiating one group from another.

failed state

failed state

Collapse of sovereignty; essentially, no national governing power.

reification

reification

Taking theory as reality; from Latin res, thing.

secularization

secularization

Diminishment of role of religion in government and society.

causality

causality

Proving that one thing causes another.

feudalism

feudalism

Political system of power dispersed and balanced between king and nobles.

absolutism

absolutism

Royal dictatorship that bypasses nobles.

political geography

political geography

How territory and politics influence each other.

elites

elites

Those few persons with great influence.

mass

mass

Most people; those without influence.

per capita

per capita

GDP divided by population, giving approximate level of well-being.

GDP

GDP

Gross domestic product; sum total of goods and services produced in a country in one year.

electoral franchise

electoral franchise

Right to vote.

symbol

symbol

Political artifact that stirs mass emotions.

institution

institution

Established rules and relationships of power.

constitution

constitution

Written organization of a country’s institutions.

parliament

parliament

National assembly that considers and enacts laws.

cabinet

cabinet

Top executives (ministers) of a government.

political culture

political culture

Values and attitudes of citizens regarding politics and society.

cynical

cynical

Untrusting; holding belief that political system is wrong and corrupt.

legitimacy

legitimacy

Mass perception that regime’s rule is rightful.

ideology

ideology

Belief system to improve society.

pragmatic

pragmatic

Without ideological considerations; based on practicality.

fake state

fake state

Artificial country that splits apart or is absorbed.

rational choice

rational choice

Theory that people rationally pursue their advantage in voting and policies.

generalization

generalization

Process of finding repeated examples and patterns.

theory

theory

Firm generalization supported by evidence.

interest group

interest group

Association aimed at getting favorable policies.

contradiction

contradiction

In Marxism, deep, opposing forces that can rip the system apart (modern term: dysfunction).

redistribution

redistribution

Taxing the better off to help the worse off.

variable

variable

Factor that changes and is related to other factors.

discontinuity

discontinuity

A break and new direction in the expected course of events.

analogy

analogy

Taking one example as the model for another.

dysanalogy

dysanalogy

Showing that one example is a poor model for another.

Celts

Celts

Pre-Roman inhabitants of Europe.

fiefdom

fiefdom

Land king grants to nobles in exchange for support.

Exchequer

Exchequer

Britain’s treasury minister.

the Continent

the Continent

British term for mainland Europe.

mixed monarchy

mixed monarchy

King balanced by nobles.

Magna Carta

Magna Carta

1215 agreement to preserve rights of English nobles.

Parliament

Parliament

When capitalized, Britain’s legislature, now usually meaning the House of Commons.

Commons

Commons

Lower house of Parliament; the elected, important chamber.

Lords

Lords

Upper house of Parliament; now much less important than Commons.

anticlerical

anticlerical

Wants to get the Roman Catholic Church out of politics.

Common Law

Common Law

System of judge-made law developed in England.

precedent

precedent

Legal reasoning based on previous cases.

republic

republic

Country not headed by a monarch.

Commonwealth

Commonwealth

A republic; also organization of countries that were once British colonies.

republican

republican

In its original sense, supporter of movement to end monarchy.

Crown

Crown

The British government.

prime minister

prime minister

Chief of government in parliamentary systems.

minister

minister

Head of a major department (ministry) of government.

Whigs

Whigs

Faction of Parliament that became Liberal Party.

Tories

Tories

Faction of Parliament that became Conservative Party.

Reform Acts

Reform Acts

Series of laws expanding the British electoral franchise.

state of nature

state of nature

Humans before civilization.

conservatism

conservatism

Ideology of preserving existing institutions and usages.

welfare state

welfare state

Political system that redistributes income from rich to poor, standard in West Europe.

statute

statute

Ordinary law, usually for a specific problem.

dignified

dignified

In Bagehot’s terms, symbolic or decorative offices.

efficient

efficient

In Bagehot’s terms, working, political offices.

MP

MP

Member of Parliament.

junior minister

junior minister

MP with executive responsibilities below cabinet rank.

portfolio

portfolio

Minister’s assigned ministry.

fusion of powers

fusion of powers

Connection of executive and legislative branches in parliamentary systems; opposite of U.S. separation of powers.

government

government

A particular cabinet, what Americans call “the administration.”

whip

whip

Parliamentary party leader who makes sure members obey the party in voting.

backbencher

backbencher

Ordinary MP with no executive responsibility.

vote of no-confidence

vote of no-confidence

Parliamentary vote to oust prime minister.

by-election

by-election

Special election for a vacant seat in Parliament.

Whitehall

Whitehall

Main British government offices.

Westminster

Westminster

Parliament building.

opposition

opposition

Parties in Parliament that are not in the cabinet.

shadow cabinet

shadow cabinet

Leaders of the opposition who aim to become the next cabinet.

nationalization

nationalization

Government takeover of an industry.

“two-plus” party system

“two-plus” party system

Two big parties and several small ones.

single-member district

single-member district

Sends one representative to Parliament.

plurality

plurality

Largest quantity, even if less than a majority.

proportional representation (PR)

proportional representation (PR)

Electoral system of multimember districts with seats awarded by the percentage that parties win.

majoritarian

majoritarian

Electoral system that encourages dominance of one party in a parliament, as in Britain and the United States.

social class

social class

Layer or section of population of similar income and status.

working class

working class

Those paid an hourly wage, typically less affluent and less educated.

middle class

middle class

Professionals or those paid salaries, typically more affluent and more educated.

meritocracy

meritocracy

Promotion by brains and ability rather than heredity.

public school

public school

In Britain, a private boarding school, equivalent to a U.S. prep school.

periphery

periphery

Nation’s outlying regions.

vcenter–periphery tension

vcenter–periphery tension

Resentment in outlying areas of rule by the nation’s capital.

Rhodes Scholarship

Rhodes Scholarship

Founded by South African millionaire; sends top foreign students to Oxford.

class voting

class voting

Tendency of classes to vote for parties that represent them.

civility

civility

Good manners in politics.

center-peaked

center-peaked

Distribution with most people in the middle, a bell-shaped curve.

authority

authority

Political leaders’ ability to be obeyed.

Malthusian

Malthusian

Malthus’s theory that population growth outstrips food supply.

home rule

home rule

Giving a region some autonomy to govern itself.

hooliganism

hooliganism

Violent and destructive behavior.

Orangemen

Orangemen

After William of Orange (symbol of Netherlands royal house), Northern Irish Protestants.

party image

party image

Electorate’s perception of a given party.

party identification

party identification

Psychological attachment of a voter to a political party.

general election

general election

Nationwide vote for all MPs.

hung parliament

hung parliament

One in which no party has a majority of seats; requires a coalition.

seat

seat

Membership in a legislature.

constituency

constituency

The district or population that elects a legislator.

central office

central office

London headquarters of British political party.

safe seat

safe seat

Constituency where voting has long favored a given party.

Marxist

Marxist

Socialist theories of Karl Marx.

Trotskyist

Trotskyist

Marxist but anti-Stalinist, follower of Leon Trotsky.

neoliberalism

neoliberalism

Revival of free-market economics, exemplified by Thatcher.

Trades Union Congress (TUC)

Trades Union Congress (TUC)

British labor federation, equivalent to the U.S. AFL-CIO.

interested member

interested member

MP known to represent an interest group.

subsidy

subsidy

Government economic aid to individual or business.

Question Hour

Question Hour

Time reserved in Commons for MPs to query ministers.

permanent secretary

permanent secretary

Highest civil servant who runs a ministry, under a nominal minister.

knighthood

knighthood

Lowest rank of nobility, carries the title “Sir.”

Treasury

Treasury

British ministry that supervises economic policies and budgets of other ministries.

peerage

peerage

A lord or lady, higher than knighthood.

rule of anticipated reactions

rule of anticipated reactions

Friedrich’s theory that politicians plan their moves so as not to anger the public.

recession

recession

A shrinking economy, indicated by falling GDP.

pluralistic stagnation

pluralistic stagnation

Theory that out-of-control interest groups produce policy logjams.

counterculture

counterculture

Rejects conventional values, as in the 1960s.

pluralism

pluralism

Autonomous interaction of social groups with themselves and with government.

deindustrialization

deindustrialization

Decline of heavy industry.

consumption

consumption

Buying things.

production

production

Making things.

productivity

productivity

Efficiency with which things are made.

inflation

inflation

Increase in most prices.

monetarism

monetarism

Friedman’s theory that the rate of growth of money supply governs much economic development.

privatization

privatization

Government sells off nationalized industries to private business.

entitlements

entitlements

Spending programs citizens are automatically entitled to, such as Social Security.

subject

subject

Originally, a subject of the Crown; now means British citizen.

devolution

devolution

Central government turns some powers over to regions.

referendum

referendum

Vote on an issue rather than for an office.

quasi-federal

quasi-federal

Part-way federal.

European Union (EU)

European Union (EU)

Quasi-federation of most European states; began in 1957 as the Common Market or European Community (EC).

euro (symbol €)

euro (symbol €)

Currency for most of Europe since 2002; worth around $1.25.

unilinear

unilinear

Progressing evenly and always upward.

Estates-General

Estates-General

Old, unused French parliament.

intendants

intendants

French provincial administrators, answerable only to Paris; early version of prefects.

aristocrat

aristocrat

Person of inherited noble rank.

Versailles

Versailles

Palaces and park on outskirts of Paris begun by Louis XIV.

core

core

Region where the state originated.

particularism

particularism

Region’s sense of its difference.

ancien régime

ancien régime

French for old regime, the monarchy that preceded the Revolution.

Cartesian

Cartesian

After French philosopher René Descartes, philosophical analysis based on pure reason without empirical reference.

Enlightenment

Enlightenment

Eighteenth-century philosophical movement advocating reason and tolerance.

general will

general will

Rousseau’s theory of what the whole community wants.

National Assembly

National Assembly

France’s parliament.

Bastille

Bastille

Old and nearly unused Paris jail, the storming of which heralded the French Revolution in 1789.

constitutional monarchy

constitutional monarchy

King with limited powers.

Reign of Terror

Reign of Terror

Robespierre’s 1793–1794 rule by guillotine.

coup d’état

coup d’état

Military takeover of a government.

plebiscite

plebiscite

Referendum; mass vote for issue rather than for candidates.

chauvinism

chauvinism

After Napoleonic soldier named Chauvin; fervent, prideful nationalism.

alienated

alienated

Psychologically distant and hostile.

Thermidor

Thermidor

Revolutionary month when Robespierre fell; a calming down after a revolutionary high.

Bourbon

Bourbon

French dynasty before the Revolution.

Paris Commune

Paris Commune

Citizen takeover of Paris government during 1870–1871 German siege.

bourgeois

bourgeois

Middle class.

reactionary

reactionary

Seeking to go back to old ways; extremely conservative.

Maginot Line

Maginot Line

Supposedly unbreachable French defenses facing Germany before World War II.

Vichy

Vichy

Nazi puppet regime that ran France during World War II.

Popular Front

Coalition government of all leftist and liberal parties in France and Spain in the 1930s.

Résistance

Résistance

World War II French underground anti-German movement.

Free French

Free French

De Gaulle’s World War II government in exile.

Allies

Allies

World War II anti-Axis military coalition.

Zionism

Zionism

Jewish nationalist movement that founded Israel.

immobilisme

immobilisme

Government inability to solve big problems.

decolonization

decolonization

Granting of independence to colonies.

premier

premier

French for prime minister.

president

president

Elected head of state, not necessarily powerful.

coalition

coalition

Multiparty alliance to form government.

deadlock

deadlock

U.S. tendency for executive and legislature, especially when of opposing parties, to block each other; current term: gridlock.

semipresidential

semipresidential

System with features of both presidential and parliamentary systems.

Elysée

Elysée

Presidential palace in Paris, equivalent to U.S. White House.

neo-Gaullist

neo-Gaullist

Chirac’s revival of Gaullist party, now called Union for a Popular Movement (UMP).

cohabitation

cohabitation

French president forced to name premier of opposing party.

turnout

turnout

Percentage of those eligible who vote in a given election.

deputy

deputy

Member of French and many other parliaments.

technocrat

technocrat

Official, usually unelected, who governs by virtue of economic skills.

interior ministry

interior ministry

In Europe, department in charge of homeland security and national police.

Palais Bourbon

Palais Bourbon

Paris house of French National Assembly.

censure

censure

Legislative condemnation of executive.

National Front

National Front

French anti-immigrant and anti-EU party.

unitary

unitary

System that centralizes power in the capital with little autonomy for component areas.

first-order civil divisions

first-order civil divisions

Main territorial units within countries, such as departments in France.

prefect

prefect

French préfet; top administrator of department.

Midi

Midi

French for “noon”; the South of France.

département

département

Department; French first-order civil division, equivalent to British county.

“La Marseillaise”

“La Marseillaise”

French national anthem.

statism

statism

Idea that a strong government should run things, especially major industries.

bureaucratized

bureaucratized

Heavily controlled by civil servants.

privatism

privatism

Concerned only with one’s personal life; unsocial.

lycée

lycée

French academic high school.

baccalauréat

baccalauréat

French high school exam and diploma.

grande école

grande école

French for “great school”; an elite, specialized college.

Ecole Nationale d’Administration (ENA)

Ecole Nationale d’Administration (ENA)

France’s school for top bureaucrats.

compartmentalization

compartmentalization

Mentally separating and isolating problems.

ideal–typical

ideal–typical

Distilling social characteristics into one example.

volatile

volatile

Rises and falls quickly.

Eurocommunism

Eurocommunism

1970s move by Italian Communists away from Stalinism and toward democracy.

Stalinist

Stalinist

Brutal central control over Communist parties.

Events of May

Events of May

Euphemism for riots and upheaval of May 1968.

charisma

charisma

Pronounced “kar-isma”; Greek for gift; political drawing power.

Medef

Medef

French business association.

structured access

structured access

Permanent openness of bureaucracy to interest-group demands.

dirigiste

dirigiste

Bureaucrats directing industry; closely connected to French statism.

Grands Corps

Grands Corps

Top bureaucrats of France.

tutelle

tutelle

French for tutelage; bureaucratic guidance.

Inspection

Inspection

Short for General Finance Inspection; very top of French bureaucracy, with powers to investigate all branches.

petit bourgeois

petit bourgeois

Small shopkeeper.

indicative planning

indicative planning

Government suggestions to industry to expand in certain areas.

protectionism

protectionism

Keeping out imports via tariffs and regulations in order to help domestic producers.

flash party

flash party

One that quickly rises and falls.

conservatism

conservatism

Desire to preserve or return to old ways.

labor-force rigidities

labor-force rigidities

Unwillingness of workers to take or change jobs.

social costs

social costs

Taxes for medical, unemployment, and pension benefits.

informal economy

informal economy

Off-the-books transactions to avoid taxes and regulations.

Muslim

Muslim

Follower of Islam; also adjective of Islam.

value-added taxes (VAT)

value-added taxes (VAT)

Large, hidden national sales taxes used throughout Europe.

Common Agricultural Program (CAP)

Common Agricultural Program (CAP)

EU farm subsidies, the biggest part of the EU budget.

Habsburg

Habsburg

Catholic dynasty that once ruled Austria-Hungary, Spain, Latin America, and the Netherlands.

Thirty Years War

Thirty Years War

1618–1648 Habsburg attempt to conquer and catholicize Europe.

Westphalia

Westphalia

Treaty ending the Thirty Years War.

Prussia

Prussia

Powerful North German state; capital Berlin.

Junker

Junker

(Pronounced YOON care) From junge Herren, young gentlemen; Prussian nobility.

nationalism

nationalism

Belief in greatness and unity of one’s country and hatred of rule by foreigners.

Lebensraum

Lebensraum

German for “living space” for an entire nation. (Note: All German nouns are capitalized.)

liberal

liberal

European and Latin American for free society and free economy. (Note very different U.S. meaning.)

Metternichian system

Metternichian system

Contrived conservative system that tried to restore pre-Napoleon European monarchy and stability.

Kulturkampf

Kulturkampf

Culture struggle, specifically Bismarck’s with the Catholic Church.

Machtpolitik

Machtpolitik

Power politics (cognate to “might”).

Realpolitik

Realpolitik

Politics of realism.

Reich

Reich

German for empire.

Reichstag

Reichstag

Pre-Hitler German parliament; its building now houses the Bundestag.

Kaiser

Kaiser

German for Caesar; emperor.

SPD

SPD

German Social Democratic Party.

revisionism

revisionism

Rethinking an ideology or reinterpreting history.

Dolchstoss

Dolchstoss

German for “stab in the back.”

Versailles Treaty

Versailles Treaty

1919 treaty ending World War I.

Weimar Republic

Weimar Republic

1919–1933 democratic German republic.

hyperinflation

hyperinflation

Very rapid inflation, more than 50 percent a month.

polarized pluralism

polarized pluralism

A multiparty system of two extremist blocs with little in the center.

opportunist

opportunist

Unprincipled person out for himself or herself.

Final Solution

Final Solution

Nazi program to exterminate Jews.

genocide

genocide

Murder of an entire people.

nonaggression pact

nonaggression pact

Treaty to not attack each other, specifically the 1939 treaty between Hitler and Stalin.

Marshall Plan

Marshall Plan

Massive U.S. financial aid for European recovery.

deutsche Mark

deutsche Mark

German currency from 1948 to 2002.

Berlin airlift

Berlin airlift

U.S.--British supply of West Berlin by air in 1948–1949.

Federal Republic of Germany

Federal Republic of Germany

Previously West Germany, now all of Germany.

Grundgesetz

Grundgesetz

Basic Law; Germany’s constitution.

federalism

federalism

System in which component areas have considerable autonomy.

Land

Land

Germany’s first-order civil division, equivalent to U.S. state; plural Länder.

Mitteleuropa

Mitteleuropa

Central Europe.

Bundestag

Bundestag

Lower house of German parliament.

chancellor

chancellor

German prime minister.

constructive no-confidence

constructive no-confidence

Parliament must vote in a new cabinet when it ousts the current one.

grand coalition

grand coalition

A government of two largest parties with only minor parties in opposition.

Bundes-

Bundes-

German prefix for “federal.”

center

center

In federal systems, the powers of the nation’s capital.

Federal Constitutional Court

Federal Constitutional Court

Germany’s top court, equivalent to U.S. Supreme Court.

extreme multipartism

extreme multipartism

Too many parties in parliament.

Greens

Greens

Environmentalist party.

Bundesrat

Bundesrat

Literally, federal council; upper chamber of German parliament, represents states.

Landtag

Landtag

German state legislature.

party list

party list

In PR elections, party’s ranking of its candidates; voters pick one list as their ballot.

threshold clause

threshold clause

In PR systems, minimum percentage party must win to get any seats.

mixed-member (MM)

mixed-member (MM)

Electoral system combining single-member districts with proportional representation.

liberal democracy

liberal democracy

Combines tolerance and freedoms (liberalism) with mass participation (democracy).

denazification

denazification

Purging Nazi officials from public life.

Holocaust

Holocaust

Nazi genocide of Europe’s Jews during World War II.

multiculturalism

multiculturalism

Preservation of diverse languages and traditions within one country; in German, Multikulti.

reparations

reparations

Payment for war damages.

political generation

political generation

Theory that age groups are marked by the great events of their young adulthood.

postmaterialism

postmaterialism

Theory that modern culture has moved beyond getting and spending.

output affect

output affect

Attachment to a system based on its providing material abundance.

system affect

system affect

Attachment to a system for its own sake.

Ostpolitik

Ostpolitik

Literally “east policy”; Brandt’s building of relations with East Europe, including East Germany.

Wessi

Wessi

Informal name for West German.

Ossi

Ossi

Informal name for East German.

romanticism

romanticism

Hearkening to an ideal world or mythical past.

center-seeking

center-seeking

Parties trying to win a big centrist vote with moderate programs.

unimodal

unimodal

Single-peaked distribution.

bimodal

bimodal

Two-peaked distribution.

Weltanschauung

Weltanschauung

Literally “world view”; parties offering firm, narrow ideologies.

catchall

catchall

Nonideological parties that welcome all.

dealignment

dealignment

Voters losing identification with any party.

Rechtsstaat

Rechtsstaat

Literally, state of laws; government based on written rules and rights.

wage restraint

wage restraint

Unions holding back on compensation demands.

Wirtschaftswunder

Wirtschaftswunder

German for “economic miracle.”

soziale Marktwirtschaft

soziale Marktwirtschaft

“Social market economy”; Germany’s postwar capitalism aimed at reconstruction and welfare.

unit labor costs

unit labor costs

What it costs to manufacture the same item in different countries.

Modell Deutschland

Modell Deutschland

German economic model.

consensus

consensus

Agreement among all constituent groups.

Mitbestimmung

Mitbestimmung

“Codetermination”; unions participating in company decisions.

eurozone

eurozone

The 19 (out of 28) EU countries that use the euro currency.

European Central Bank

European Central Bank

Supervises interest rates, money supply, and inflation in the euro area, like the U.S. Fed.

bailout

bailout

Emergency loan to prevent a collapse.

Gastarbeiter

Gastarbeiter

“Guest workers”; temporary labor allowed into Germany.

jus sanguinis

jus sanguinis

Latin for “right of blood”; citizenship based on descent.

jus soli

jus soli

Latin for “right of soil”; citizenship given to those born in the country.

xenophobia

xenophobia

Fear and hatred of foreigners.

Warsaw Pact

Warsaw Pact

Soviet-led alliance of Communist countries, now defunct.

Comecon

Comecon

Trading organization of Communist countries, now defunct.

Bonn Republic

Bonn Republic

West Germany, 1949–1990, with the capital in Bonn.

Berlin Republic

Berlin Republic

Reunified Germany, since 1990, with the capital in Berlin.

demography

demography

Study of population growth.

fertility rate

fertility rate

How many children an average woman bears.

Shinto

Shinto

Japan’s original religion; the worship of nature, of one’s ancestors, and of Japan.

shogun

shogun

Feudal Japanese military ruler.

Tokugawa

Tokugawa

Dynasty of shoguns who ruled Japan from 1603 to 1868; also known as the Edo Period.

gaijin

gaijin

Literally, “outside person”; foreigner. (Japanese suffix “jin” means person, thus Nihon-jin and America-jin.)

Meiji

Meiji

Period of Japan’s rapid modernization, starting in 1868.

Manchukuo

Manchukuo

Japanese puppet state in Manchuria.

Liberal Democrats (LDP)

Liberal Democrats (LDP)

Japan’s long-dominant party, a catchall.

Diet

Diet

Name of some parliaments, such as Japan’s and Finland’s.

pork barrel

pork barrel

Government projects that narrowly benefit legislators’ constituencies.

alternation in power

alternation in power

The electoral overturn of one party by another.

METI

METI

Japan’s powerful Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Industry (formerly MITI).

prefecture

prefecture

First-order Japanese civil division; like French department.

guilt

guilt

Deeply internalized feeling of personal responsibility and moral failure.

shame

shame

Feeling of having behaved incorrectly and of having violated group norms.

iron triangle

iron triangle

Interlocking of politicians, bureaucrats, and businesspeople to promote the flow of funds among them.

scandal

scandal

Corrupt practice publicized by news media.

walking-around money

walking-around money

Politicians’ relatively small payments to buy votes.

slush fund

slush fund

Secret, unbudgeted, and unaccountable money used by politicians.

money politics

money politics

Lavish use of funds to win elections.

¥

¥

Symbol for yen (and Chinese yuan); Japan’s currency; worth about ¥100 to $1.

unit veto

unit veto

Ability of one component to block laws or changes.

structure

structure

Institutions of government such as constitution, laws, and branches.

soft money

soft money

In U.S. politics, funds given to parties and other groups rather than to candidates in order to skirt restrictions.

Four Tigers

Four Tigers

South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Singapore.

macroeconomy

macroeconomy

Big picture of a nation’s economy, including GDP size and growth, productivity, interest rates, and inflation.

microeconomy

microeconomy

Close-up picture of individual markets, including product design and pricing, efficiency, and costs.

excess liquidity

excess liquidity

Too much money floating around.

deflation

deflation

Decrease in prices; opposite of inflation.

deficit

deficit

Government spends more in a given year than it takes in.

debt

debt

Sum total of government deficits over many years.

trade surplus

trade surplus

Exporting more than you import.

write off

write off

Lender admits that a nonperforming loan will never be repaid.

nonperforming loan

nonperforming loan

One that is not being repaid.

support ratio

support ratio

Number working compared to number retired.

tyranny

tyranny

Coercive rule, usually by one person.

Siberia

Siberia

That part of Russia east of the Ural Mountains.

Constantinople

Constantinople

Capital of Byzantium, conquered by Turks in 1453.

Cyrillic

Cyrillic

Greek-based alphabet of Eastern Slavic languages.

Tatar

Tatar

Mongol-origin tribes who ruled Russia for centuries. (Not Tartar.)

Ukraine

Ukraine

From Slavic for “borderland”; country south of Russia.

exclave

exclave

Part of country separated from main territory.

tsar

tsar

From “caesar”; Russia’s emperor; sometimes spelled old Polish style, czar.

autocracy

autocracy

Absolute rule of one person in a centralized state.

caesaropapism

caesaropapism

Combining the top civil ruler (caesar) with the top spiritual ruler (pope), as in Russia’s tsars.

Westernizers

Westernizers

Nineteenth-century Russians who wished to copy the West.

Slavophiles

Slavophiles

Nineteenth-century Russians who wished to develop Russia along native, non-Western lines; also known as “Russophiles.”

imperialism

imperialism

Powerful countries turning other lands into colonies.

zemstvo

zemstvo

Local parliament in old Russia.

Narodniki

Narodniki

From Russian for “people,” narod; radical populist agitators of late nineteenth-century Russia.

anarchism

anarchism

Radical ideology seeking to overthrow all conventional forms of government.

proletariat

proletariat

According to Marx, class of industrial workers.

communism

communism

Economic theories of Marx combined with organization of Lenin.

Bolshevik Party

Bolshevik Party

“Majority” in Russian; early name for Soviet Communist Party.

Duma

Duma

Russia’s national parliament.

gensek

gensek

Russian abbreviation for “general secretary”; powerful CPSU chief.

CPSU

CPSU

Communist Party of the Soviet Union.

paranoia

paranoia

Unreasonable suspicion of others.

purge

purge

Stalin’s “cleansing” of suspicious elements by firing squad.

Cold War

Cold War

Period of armed tension and competition between the United States and the Soviet Union, approximately 1947–1989.

war communism

war communism

Temporary strict socialism in Russia, 1918–1921.

New Economic Policy (NEP)

New Economic Policy (NEP)

Lenin’s economic policy that allowed private activity, 1921–1928.

Five-Year Plans

Five-Year Plans

Stalin’s forced industrialization of the Soviet Union, starting in 1928.

capital goods

capital goods

Implements used to make other things.

consumer goods

consumer goods

Things people use, such as food, clothing, and housing.

weak state

weak state

One unable to govern effectively; corrupt and crime ridden.

Central Committee

Central Committee

Large, next-to-top governing body of most Communist parties.

apparatchik

apparatchik

“Man of the apparatus”; full-time CPSU functionary.

Politburo

Politburo

“Political bureau”; small, top governing body of most Communist parties.

republic

republic

First-order civil division of Communist federal systems, equivalent to U.S. states.

nomenklatura

nomenklatura

List of sensitive positions and people eligible to fill them, the Soviet elite.

Gulag

Gulag

The Soviet central prisons administration.

siloviki

siloviki

“Strong men”; security officials who now control Russia (singular silovik).

Gosplan

Gosplan

Soviet central economic planning agency.

State Duma

State Duma

Lower house of Russia’s parliament.

oligarchy

oligarchy

Rule by a few.

kleptocracy

kleptocracy

Rule by thieves.

rump state

rump state

Leftover portions of a country after dismemberment.

glasnost

glasnost

Gorbachev’s policy of media openness.

civil society

civil society

Associations larger than the family but not part of government, and the pluralistic values that come with them.

socialize

socialize

To teach political culture, often informally.

Caucasus

Caucasus

Mountainous region between Black and Caspian seas.

Central Asia

Central Asia

Region between Caspian Sea and China.

cult of personality

cult of personality

Personal glorification of a dictator.

shock therapy

shock therapy

Sudden replacement of socialist economy by market economy.

totalitarianism

totalitarianism

Attempts to totally control society, as under Stalin and Hitler.

authoritarianism

authoritarianism

Dictatorial rejection of democracy, but milder than totalitarianism.

perestroika

perestroika

Russian for “restructuring”; Gorbachev’s proposals to reform the Soviet economy.

runaway system

runaway system

Influential people use their resources to amass more resources.

input-output table

input-output table

Spreadsheet for economy of entire nation.

infant mortality rate

infant mortality rate

Number of live newborns who die in their first year, per thousand; standard measure of nation’s health.

asset stripping

asset stripping

Selling off firm’s property and raw materials for short-term profit.

public finances

public finances

What a government takes in, what it spends, and how it makes up the difference.

flight capital

flight capital

Money that the owner sends out of the country for fear of losing it.

hard currency

hard currency

Noninflating, recognized currencies used in international dealings, such as dollars and euros.

default

default

Country announces that it cannot pay back a loan.

geopolitics

geopolitics

Influence of geography on politics and use of geography for strategic ends.

North Caucasus

North Caucasus

Mountainous region north of Georgia and Azerbaijan, including Chechnya.

middle way

middle way

Supposed blend of capitalism and socialism; also called “third way.”

current account balance

current account balance

A country’s exports minus its imports.

Middle Kingdom

Middle Kingdom

China’s traditional and current name for itself, “in the middle of the heavens” (translation of Zhōngguó).

Han

Han

Early dynasty, 206 BC to 220 AD, that solidified China’s unity and culture. Ethnic meaning: main people of China.

Mandarin

Mandarin

High civil servant of imperial China; now main language of China.

dynastic cycle

dynastic cycle

Rise, maturity, and fall of an imperial family.

Mandate of Heaven

Mandate of Heaven

Old Chinese expression for legitimacy.

Mongol

Mongol

Central Asian tribes combined by Genghis Khan; ruled China as the Yuan dynasty in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries.

Manchu

Manchu

Last imperial dynasty of China, 1644–1912; also known as Qing.

steady-state

steady-state

A system that preserves itself with little change.

Confucianism

Confucianism

Chinese philosophy of social and political stability based on family, hierarchy, and manners.

kow-tow

kow-tow

Literally, “head to the ground”; to kneel and bow deeply.

Ming

Ming

Chinese dynasty between Mongols and Manchus, 1368–1644.

pinyin

pinyin

Literally, “spell sound”; current system of transliterating Chinese.

Opium Wars

Opium Wars

Nineteenth-century British (and French) campaigns to keep China open to opium imports.

treaty ports

treaty ports

Areas of China coast run by European powers.

extraterritoriality

extraterritoriality

Privilege of Europeans in colonial situations to have their own laws and courts.

sphere of influence

sphere of influence

Semicolonial area under control of major power.

Taiping

Taiping

Religion-based rebellion in nineteenth-century China.

Boxer

Boxer

Chinese antiforeigner rebellion in 1900.

Open Door

Open Door

U.S. policy of protecting China.

warlord

warlord

General who ran province after collapse of empire in 1911.

Nationalist

Nationalist

Chiang Kai-shek’s party that unified China in the late 1920s, abbreviated KMT.

mass line

mass line

Mao’s theory of peasant-based revolution for China.

Zhongnanhai

Zhongnanhai

Walled compound for China’s top leaders next to Forbidden City in Beijing.

Forbidden City

Forbidden City

Emperor’s walled palace complex in Beijing.

geomancy

geomancy

Divinely correct positioning of structures.

Tiananmen

Tiananmen

Gate of Heavenly Peace, Beijing’s main square.

Kremlinology

Kremlinology

Noting personnel changes to analyze Communist regimes.

Beida

Beida

Short name for Beijing University, long China’s best (equivalent to Japan’s Todai).

Comintern

Comintern

Short for Communist International; the world’s Communist parties under Moscow’s control.

cadre

cadre

Communist member serving as an official; Chinese: gànbù.

Gang of Four

Gang of Four

Mao’s ultraradical helpers, arrested in 1976.

paramilitary

paramilitary

National police force organized and equipped like a light army, such as the French CRS.

autonomous region

autonomous region

Soviet-style home area for ethnic minority.

Uighur

Uighur

Muslim, Turkic-speaking Chinese ethnic group, bordering ex-Soviet Central Asia.

Xinjiang

Xinjiang

China’s northwesternmost region, home of Uighurs.

Tibet

Tibet

Himalayan region of China with distinct language and culture.

hukou

hukou

(sounds like who cow) Registered place of residence.

Maoism

Maoism

Extreme form of communism, featuring guerrilla warfare and periodic upheavals.

voluntarism

voluntarism

Belief that human will can change the world.

Guangdong

Guangdong

Southern coastal province, capital Guangzhou.

Pearl River Delta

Pearl River Delta

Major industrial area in Guangdong; includes Guangzhou, Shenzhen, and Hong Kong.

Qin

Qin

First dynasty to unify China, 221–206 BC

Taiwan

Taiwan

Large island off China’s southern coast, ruled by Nationalists since 1945.

Korean War

Korean War

1950–1953 conflict involving North and South Korean, U.S., and Chinese forces.

Anti-Japanese War

Anti-Japanese War

Chinese name for World War II in China, 1937–1945.

Century of Humiliation

Century of Humiliation

China’s term for its domination by imperialists from the first Opium War to Communist victory, 1839–1949.

self-censorship

self-censorship

The curbing of criticism writers impose on themselves.

Daoism

Daoism

From Dao, “the way”; old Chinese religion originally based on nature; earlier spelled Taoism.

Jesuit

Jesuit

Society of Jesus; Catholic religious order once active in converting Asians.

Putonghua

Putonghua

“Common language” of China, now standard; earlier called Mandarin.

Solidarity

Solidarity

Huge Polish labor union that ousted the Communist regime in 1989.

Qinghua

Qinghua

China’s top technological university, in Beijing (still often spelled in Wade-Giles Tsinghua).

Great Leap Forward

Great Leap Forward

Mao’s failed late 1950s effort to industrialize China overnight.

Cultural Revolution

Cultural Revolution

Mao’s late 1960s mad effort to break bureaucracy in China.

Red Guards

Red Guards

Radical Maoist youth who disrupted China during the Cultural Revolution.

state-owned enterprises (SOEs)

state-owned enterprises (SOEs)

Firms still owned by the Chinese government.

coercion

coercion

Government by force.

Gini Index

Gini Index

Measure of inequality; higher is more unequal.

guanxi

guanxi

Chinese for connections (do not confuse with Guangxi Province); polite term for corruption.

S-curve

S-curve

Typical trajectory of economic development.

soft landing

soft landing

Gradual calming of destabilizing economic shifts.

R & D

R & D

Research and development of new technologies.

devalue

devalue

To change the worth of a currency downward in relation to other currencies (opposite of revalue).

RMB

RMB

Renminbi (people’s money), official name of China’s currency, same as yuan.

yuan

yuan

China’s currency (symbol ¥), officially called RMB, worth about 16 U.S. cents.

peg

peg

To fix one currency at an unchanging rate to another.

revalue

revalue

To change the worth of a currency upward in relation to other currencies (opposite of devalue).

float

float

To allow a currency to find its own level based on supply and demand.

purchasing power parity (PPP)

purchasing power parity (PPP)

A currency’s value taking cost of living into account.

Special Economic Zones

Special Economic Zones

Areas originally on China’s southern coast where capitalist economic development was encouraged.

foreign direct investment (FDI)

foreign direct investment (FDI)

Foreign firms setting up operations in other countries.

yuppie

yuppie

Short for “young urban professional.”

World Trade Organization (WTO)

World Trade Organization (WTO)

Organization whose 120-plus members open themselves to trade and investment; has quasi-judicial powers.

dumping

dumping

Selling goods overseas for less than it costs to produce them.

Taipei

Taipei

(Pronounced Type-A) Capital of Taiwan.

Hinduism

Hinduism

Chief religion of India, polytheistic and based on Vedic scriptures, rebirth, and caste.

caste

caste

Rigid, hereditary social stratum or group.

Buddhism

Buddhism

Sixth century bc offshoot of Hinduism; seeks enlightenment through meditation and cessation of desire.

sultanate

sultanate

Muslim state governed by a sultan (holder of power).

Mughal

Mughal

From Mongol; Muslim conquerors of India; formed empire.

colonialism

colonialism

Gaining and exploitation of overseas territories, chiefly by Europeans; related to imperialism.

maharajah

maharajah

Sanskrit for “great king”; Hindu prince.

sepoy

sepoy

Indian soldier in the British Indian Army.

Raj

Raj

From Hindi rule; British government of India, 1858–1947.

subcontinent

subcontinent

Asia south of the Himalayas (India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh); also called South Asia.

Congress

Congress

Led India’s independence movement and later was the dominant party.

swaraj

swaraj

Swa = self, raj = rule; Indian independence.

partition

partition

Divide a country among its communities.

communal

communal

Ethnic or religious communities within a nation.

Muslim League

Muslim League

Organization demanding a separate Muslim Pakistan.

Hindutva

Hindutva

Literally, Hinduness.

Kashmir

Kashmir

Valley near Himalayas contested by India and Pakistan.

president’s rule

president’s rule

Delhi’s ability to take over state governments.

dialect

dialect

Mutually intelligible variety of a language.

Hindi

Hindi

National language of India.

secularism

secularism

In India, treating members of all religions equally.

Naxalites

Naxalites

Maoist guerrilla fighters in India.

rupee

rupee

India’s currency (symbol Rs); Rs. 65 are worth about $1.

autarchy

autarchy

Economic self-sufficiency, importing and exporting little.

import substitution

import substitution

Policy of excluding foreign goods and producing them domestically; means high tariffs.

sharia

sharia

Muslim religious law based on the Koran.

overheat

overheat

Experience too-rapid economic growth characterized by inflation, factories at full capacity, and excessive borrowing.

sustainable

sustainable

Can keep going for many years with no major downturns.

Mesoamerica

Mesoamerica

Spanish for Middle America; southern Mexico and northern Central America.

cacique

cacique

Originally, Indian chief; local political boss.

pre-Columbian

pre-Columbian

The Americas before Columbus arrived.

creole

creole

Spaniard born in the New World.

caudillo

caudillo

Military chief or strongman who takes over the government.

ejido

ejido

Land owned in common by villages.

priísmo

priísmo

Ideology and methods of PRI.

sexenio

sexenio

From seis años; six-year term of Mexico’s presidents.

corporatism

corporatism

Direct participation of interest groups in governance.

clientelism

clientelism

Government favors to groups for their support.

political institution

political institution

Established and durable relationships of power and authority.

institutionalize

institutionalize

To make a political relationship permanent.

constitutionalism

constitutionalism

Degree to which government limits its powers.

dedazo

dedazo

From dedo, finger; tapped for high office.

dominant-party system

dominant-party system

One party is much stronger than all others and stays in office a long time.

bilateral opposition

bilateral opposition

Undermining of centrist governments from both sides.

populist

populist

Claims to be for common people and against elites.

hacienda

hacienda

Large country estate with Spanish owner (hacendado) and Indian serfs.

mestizaje

mestizaje

Intermingling of Spanish and Indian.

norteamericanos

norteamericanos

“North Americans”; U.S. citizens.

egalitarian

egalitarian

Dedicated to equality.

co-optation

co-optation

To enroll other groups in your cause, rendering them harmless.

peso

peso

Spanish for “weight”; Mexico’s currency, worth about 7 U.S. cents.

narcotraficante

narcotraficante

Drug trafficker.

globalization

globalization

World becoming one big capitalist market.

NAFTA

NAFTA

1994 North American Free Trade Agreement among the United States, Canada, and Mexico.

remittance

remittance

Money sent home.

regency

regency

Council that runs state until king comes of age.

Positivism

Positivism

Philosophy of applying scientific method to social problems and gradually improving society.

Old Republic

Old Republic

Brazil’s first republic, 1889–1930; rigged democracy.

coronéis

coronéis

“Colonels,” Brazilian state-level political bosses.

mobilize

mobilize

To bring new sectors of the population into political participation.

autogolpe

autogolpe

“Self-coup,” top executive seizes more power.

Estado Nôvo

Estado Nôvo

“New State,” Vargas’s corporatistic welfare state.

fiscal

fiscal

Related to taxes and public spending.

favela

favela

Brazilian shantytown, found in most cities.

inchoate

inchoate

Not yet organized, incoherent.

personalismo

personalismo

Politics by strong, showoff personalities.

machismo

machismo

Strutting, exaggerated masculinity.

dependency theory

dependency theory

Radical theory that rich countries exploit and impoverish poor countries.

disinflation

disinflation

Bringing down the rate of inflation (not the same as deflation, an overall decline in prices).

real

real

(plural, reís; symbol, R$) Brazil’s currency, worth about 45 U.S. cents.

IMF

IMF

International Monetary Fund, grants loans to promote economic stability.

constructive bankruptcy

constructive bankruptcy

Economic theory that weak firms should fold to make way for new enterprises.

Second Vatican Council

Second Vatican Council

Series of meetings that modernized the Roman Catholic Church and turned it to problems of poverty; also called Vatican II.

Bolsa Família

Bolsa Família

“Family Allowance,” 2004 Brazilian welfare program.

hyperurbanization

hyperurbanization

Overconcentration of populations into cities.

jihad

jihad

Arabic for “struggle”; also Muslim holy war.

caliphate

caliphate

Islamic dynasty.

indirect rule

indirect rule

British colonial governance through native hereditary rulers.

divide and rule

divide and rule

Roman and British imperial ruling method of setting subjects against each other.

pan-Africanism

pan-Africanism

Movement to unite all of Africa.

desiccation

desiccation

Drying out.

sub-Saharan

sub-Saharan

Africa south of the Sahara.

Sahel

Sahel

Narrow band south of Sahara; arid but not yet desert.

aquifer

aquifer

Underground water-bearing layer.

savanna

savanna

Tropical grasslands south of Sahel.

cleft

cleft

In Huntington’s theory, a country split by two civilizations.

torn

torn

In Huntington’s theory, a country with a Westernizing elite but traditional masses.

cross-cutting cleavages

cross-cutting cleavages

Multiple splits in society that make group loyalties overlap.

cumulative

cumulative

Reinforcing one another.

patronage

patronage

Giving government jobs to political supporters.

developmentalism

developmentalism

Early 1960s theory that America could develop Third World lands.

strategic variable

strategic variable

Factor you can change that makes a big improvement.

policy

policy

The specific choices governments make.

transparency

transparency

Exchanges of money open to public scrutiny. (Opposite: opacity.)

kickback

kickback

Bribe paid to government official for a contract.

absolute poverty

absolute poverty

Living on $1.25 a day or less.

Islam

Islam

Religion founded by Muhammad.

Shia

Shia

Minority branch of Islam.

Sunni

Sunni

Mainstream Islam.

Majlis

Majlis

Arabic for assembly; Iran’s parliament.

shah

shah

Persian for king.

modernizing tyrant

modernizing tyrant

Dictator who pushes a country ahead.

containment

containment

U.S. Cold War policy of blocking expansion of communism.

secular

secular

Nonreligious.

mosque

mosque

Muslim house of worship.

Ottoman

Ottoman

Turkish imperial dynasty, fourteenth to twentieth centuries.

OPEC

OPEC

Cartel of oil-rich countries designed to boost petroleum prices.

mullah

mullah

Muslim cleric.

ayatollah

ayatollah

“Sign of God”; top Shia religious leader.

theocracy

theocracy

Rule by priests.

velayat-e faqih

velayat-e faqih

“Guardianship of the Islamic jurist”; theocratic system devised by Khomeini.

canon law

canon law

Internal laws of the Roman Catholic Church.

Islamist

Islamist

Someone who uses Islam in a political way.

Basij

Basij

Persian for “mobilization”; Iranian volunteer paramilitary force.

Koran

Koran

Muslim holy book.

Islamism

Islamism

Islam turned into political ideology.

hajj

hajj

Muslim pilgrimage to Mecca.

fatwa

fatwa

Ruling by Islamic jurist.

Third World

Third World

Most of Asia, Africa, and Latin America.

microcredit

microcredit

Very small loans to startup businesses.

petrostate

petrostate

Country based on oil exports.

corruption

corruption

Use of public office for private gain.